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Terminologies Simplified

Telnet: Terminal-to-remote host protocol developed for ARPAnet. It is the TCP/IP protocol governing the exchange of character-oriented terminal data. This protocol is used to link two computers in order to provide a terminal connection to the remote machine. Instead of dialing into the computer, you connect to it over the Internet using Telnet.

Terminal adapter (TA): A device that connects a computer to an ISDN channel. Used instead of a modem, it is either an external unit or a plug-in adapter card.

Terminal emulator: A program that makes your computer look like a terminal so that you can connect to a terminal server. Your computer acts like a terminal during the connection; all processing is taking place remotely. A terminal emulator is also called a terminal emulation program.

Terminal server: A terminal server is a computing device to which a terminal can connect over a LAN or WAN link. A terminal communicates with the terminal server over an asynchronous serial port (typically an RS-232 port) through a modem. A terminal converts the data it receives from the terminal server into a display and does no further processing of the data.

Thin client: A PC designed to be dependent on a network. It usually consists only of essential components, lacking diskette drives, expansion slots, CD-ROM drives, etc. Applications typically originate on a server and may or may not be executed on the client. Thin clients are significantly less expensive than autonomous PCs and are therefore an attractive alternative for businesses.

Thick Ethernet: A term that describes a type of Ethernet cable. Thick Ethernet, or thicknet, is .4" diameter coaxial cable for Ethernet networks.

Thin Ethernet: A term that describes a type of Ethernet cable. Thin Ethernet, or thinnet, is .2" diameter coaxial cable for Ethernet networks.

Token: A security device about the size of a credit card, a token is used to generate a network ID code. Typically, a user enters a password into the device and then is granted a randomly generated access code that can be used to log onto a network.

Transparent bridging: A bridging process whose presence and operation are not apparent to network hosts. When transparent bridges are activated, they learn the network's topology by analyzing the source addresses of incoming frames from all attached networks.

Tunneling: The process of encapsulating a packet within a packet of a different protocol. Using tunneling, two networks based on the same protocol can communicate across a network based on a different protocol. For example, IPX packets can have IP headers attached so that they can be transported across the Internet.

Unshielded twisted pair (UTP): Two unshielded wires, usually loosely intertwined, that help minimize any induced noise in balanced circuits. This type of wiring is commonly used in LANs.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP): A connectionless protocol that runs on top of IP networks. UDP/IP is primarily used to broadcast messages over a network.

Virtual private network (VPN): A secure internetwork connection between two geographically separate LANs provided by a public network such as the Internet. The connection emulates a LAN connection, thus reducing or eliminating the need for a private WAN link.

Virtual Terminal Protocol (VTP): An ISO application for establishing a virtual terminal connection across a network. With VTP a computer system appears to be a remote system as if it were a directly attached terminal.

Watchdog Spoofing: NetWare servers send 'session keep alive' packets to clients who must return the packet to keep a session active. Ascend units can reply to NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) watchdog packets on behalf of clients on the other side of a bridge, causing the server to sense that the link is still active. Effectively imitating a return 'session keep alive' packet is called watchdog spoofing.

WINS (Windows Internet Name Service): Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) is a Microsoft product that manages the mapping between resource names (in the form of easy-to-remember nicknames) and IP addresses. The DNS service used on the Internet cannot map between IP addresses and local resource names dynamically. However, through dynamic database updates, WINS lets users access network resources via more user-friendly names instead of IP addresses.