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Dear Editor,
I want to use a local Fax broadcasting service. I'd like to know who is providing such a service in India.

Nayan Desai
Marketing Executive

Dear Nayan Desai,
One application of Voice over IP (VoIP) is Fax over IP. We can expect many Fax broadcasting services once Internet Telephony is legalized here in April 2002.

Meanwhile you can check out the following websites for more information. We are not recommending any fax services and you should explore the options.


Dear Editor,
I have been assigned the responsibility of preparing a report on the hardware and software requirements for a proposed leased line set up in our college.

In this regard I have the following queries:

1. How many users can work on a 64 Kbps line and 128 Kbps line (PII and PIII machines with 64 MB RAM, working on Windows NT).

2. What type of modem, routers and other things are required? Can you suggest some brand names.

Anil Khurana
Institute of Management Studies and Research
M.D. University
Rohtak-124001, Haryana

Dear Anil Khurana,
You can obtain a leased line from telecom service providers in the country. The tariffs (and other requisites) are mentioned on their respective websites.

Type of machine connected to a leased line does not really affect bandwidth. Of course, the more nodes (connected PCs), the slower the access. But bandwidth can be regulated using equipment like routers and switches. In addition you will need to install equipment like CSU/DSU units (leased line modems).

Exact infrastructural requirements varies, depending on the extent of your network. But you can engage the services of a telecom consultant who will draw up a blueprint for the proposed leased line network.

For more information look up the following websites:


Dear Mahesh,
We are grateful for your solution on networking and file sharing. We followed your instructions, and now things work fine. We have another query.

We wish to go in for an ISDN set up and use our regular phone line for this purpose. Can you advise us on the infrastructural requirements (hardware and software) for ISDN?

Rahul Pandey, Amit Shahi, Vivek Singh

UNS Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jaunpur

Dear Rahul Pandey,
A detailed answer to your query is beyond the scope of this column, and would merit a whole article. However, we might consider a case study on ISDN in future.

You can look up the following websites for such information. references.html


Dear Editor,
I had gone through the article 'Switching your data,' in Network Magazine, November 2001. I am still unclear about the term 'Segment' that you've used. To quote, "The main job of the Ethernet switch is to divide networks into segments and provide each segment with dedicated bandwidth."

Please clarify.

Aawaneesh Kumar Singh

Dear Aawaneesh Kumar Singh,
Bandwidth decreases as more users, nodes and services are added to the network. The way round this problem is to divide the network into smaller sub-networks (subnets) and allocate dedicated bandwidth to each subnet. These subnets are also called Segments or Domains. You can divide a large network into segments/domains/subnets by deploying switching equipment.

You'll find another article on Switches at:


Dear Editor,
We are all aware that not much progress has been made in the area of 3G technology here in India.

As things stand, this technology is still in the development phase and implementation is some time away.

I seek exhaustive material on 3G technology R&D efforts in India. We need information and news about policy issues, operator's views, technical issues competitor's activities, planning of 3G infrastructure. Also, what kind of effort and role will our country play in the global markets (with 3G technology)?

Do suggest some books or website links related to 3G technology development in our country.

Tina Bhagwanani

Dear Tina Bhagwani,
The information you seek can be drawn from various resources: websites, daily newspapers, technical magazines, etc. Look for clues using a search engine. Then look up the archives of leading newspapers (online or in their respective libraries). You can also browse through back issues of technical magazines on Communications technology.

You might also want to check what the wireless service providers are working on. BPL Mobile Communications and Motorola for instance, are developing a GPRS network in India. The Indian subsidiary of Texas Instruments has set up a 3G center in Bangalore. Earlier this year wireless solutions providers demonstrated 3G applications at the '3G Tour Transcontinental-ON AIR Show' in New Delhi.

Here are a few websites to get you started:

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Copyright 2001: Indian Express Group (Mumbai, India). All rights reserved throughout the world. This entire site is compiled in Mumbai by The Business Publications Division of the Indian Express Group of Newspapers. Site managed by BPD