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Timing In digital communications, a synchronization method
that extracts timing information from incoming pulses.
A diagnostic test that transmits a signal across a medium,
while the sending device waits for the return of the signal.
Mode An operating mode that allows testing of a line by sending
a signal back to its origin, instead of sending it on to a
Source And Record Route (LSRR) An Internet Protocol (IP) option
that enables a datagram's source to specify routing information
and to record the datagram route. This option is used as a
security measure because it ensures that datagrams travel
over only those routes that have a level of security commensurate
with that of the datagram.
Budget A combination of all the factors contributing to the
loss of a signal between the source and destination.
Compression A data-compression method that rearranges or recodes
data in a more compact fashion, in such a way that no data
is lost when the file is decompressed.
Networking (LEN) A term describing IBM's peer-to-peer configuration
for Systems Network Architecture (SNA) networks.
Protocol A protocol at the Physical Layer (Layer 1) or Data
Link Layer (Layer2) of the OSI Reference Model.
A telecommunications method used to multiplex 28 T1 channels
into one T3 channel.
A variation file-transfer protocol that ensures the proper
transmission of Macintosh files over a modem.
language A native binary language used internally by a computer.
Machine language is the result of a high-level programming
code being assembled, compiled, or interpreted into a format
the computer uses to process instructions.
Transfer Agent (MTA) A component of the electronic mail (e-mail)
system found in the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) suite. An MTA provides an interface between
users (and applications) and the e-mail system, sends and
receives messages, and forwards messages between mail servers.
Different MTAs communicate with each other using the Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). Users interact with MTAs through
user agents, which communicate with the MTA using a protocol,
such as Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3).
Either a large number of files or one very large file sent
to an electronic mail (e-mail) address in an effort to crash
the recipient's e-mail system.
Distribution Frame (MDF) A central distribution (usually a
wiring closet) for the wiring of a building. An MDF may be
connected directly to a user's workstation or to an intermediate
Operation Protocol (MOP) A protocol from Digital Equipment
Corporation that provides a way to perform primitive maintenance
operations on a DECnet network system.
Release A low-level update to software that includes minor
bug fixes or the addition of minor features. A higher-level
update that fixes major bugs or introduces major features
is called a major release. Version numbers on the software
indicate the level of the update. For example, software with
a release version number of 4.0 indicates a major release;
a version number of 4.1 indicates a maintenance release.
Object A network device managed by either network-management
software or a protocol suite, such as Simple Network Management
Process Software that initiates network requests for data
from managing agents (programs
monitoring the activity of workstations) and performs any
analysis on the data. The managing process software operates
on a dedicated machine known as the managing station.