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Terminologies Simplified

Loop Timing In digital communications, a synchronization method that extracts timing information from incoming pulses.

Loopback A diagnostic test that transmits a signal across a medium, while the sending device waits for the return of the signal.

Loopback Mode An operating mode that allows testing of a line by sending a signal back to its origin, instead of sending it on to a destination.

Loose Source And Record Route (LSRR) An Internet Protocol (IP) option that enables a datagram's source to specify routing information and to record the datagram route. This option is used as a security measure because it ensures that datagrams travel over only those routes that have a level of security commensurate with that of the datagram.

Loss Budget A combination of all the factors contributing to the loss of a signal between the source and destination.

Lossless Compression A data-compression method that rearranges or recodes data in a more compact fashion, in such a way that no data is lost when the file is decompressed.

Low-Entry Networking (LEN) A term describing IBM's peer-to-peer configuration for Systems Network Architecture (SNA) networks.

Low-level Protocol A protocol at the Physical Layer (Layer 1) or Data Link Layer (Layer2) of the OSI Reference Model.

M13 A telecommunications method used to multiplex 28 T1 channels into one T3 channel.

Mach A variation file-transfer protocol that ensures the proper transmission of Macintosh files over a modem.

Machine language A native binary language used internally by a computer. Machine language is the result of a high-level programming code being assembled, compiled, or interpreted into a format the computer uses to process instructions.

Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) A component of the electronic mail (e-mail) system found in the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite. An MTA provides an interface between users (and applications) and the e-mail system, sends and receives messages, and forwards messages between mail servers. Different MTAs communicate with each other using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). Users interact with MTAs through user agents, which communicate with the MTA using a protocol, such as Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3).

Mailbomb Either a large number of files or one very large file sent to an electronic mail (e-mail) address in an effort to crash the recipient's e-mail system.

Main Distribution Frame (MDF) A central distribution (usually a wiring closet) for the wiring of a building. An MDF may be connected directly to a user's workstation or to an intermediate distribution point.

Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP) A protocol from Digital Equipment Corporation that provides a way to perform primitive maintenance operations on a DECnet network system.

Maintenance Release A low-level update to software that includes minor bug fixes or the addition of minor features. A higher-level update that fixes major bugs or introduces major features is called a major release. Version numbers on the software indicate the level of the update. For example, software with a release version number of 4.0 indicates a major release; a version number of 4.1 indicates a maintenance release.

Managed Object A network device managed by either network-management software or a protocol suite, such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

Managing Process Software that initiates network requests for data from managing agents (programs
monitoring the activity of workstations) and performs any analysis on the data. The managing process software operates on a dedicated machine known as the managing station.

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