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Troubleshooting Techniques

It has been found that most problems relating to days I S Managers he has to deal with several hiccups of, configuration network compatibility, viruses and space allocation. Despite solutions floating in from all knowledge schools of thought these still rear their ugly heads. In this section of NM some of the tired and true answers are offered that we believe could help to nip the problems in the bud.

Q1. I am facing some networking related problems. Please give your suggestions to solve the problems noted below.
1. I have an NT Server with two NICs. When I configure for the TCP/IP protocol, if I am giving TCPIP address to both the cards, I am unable to ping the Windows 95 workstation connected to this PC or vice versa. How can this be rectified?
2. I want to connect from Windows 95 workstation to the same NT Server using dialup a connection. The NT server is loaded with RAS service. What are the configurations I have to perform for the same?

Please help with your suggestions.
1) Check for the driver, which you have installed. Because, sometimes the installed driver will not match the Ethernet cards that you've installed.
If the driver matches the Ethernet cards, then check for the configuration of TCP/IP, may be TCP/IP
has not been configured properly (also check for IP address and Subnet Mask). If the problem
persists, then there could be a problem with the card itself, for which you could contact your hardware
vendor to replace the card.
2) You can get instructions for configuring your system from Win95 to NT Server from http://www.kime.net/directcc/ directcc35.htm

Q2. I have two PCs in my house. Can I connect these two PCs with twisted pair and do file transfer over that wire?
Using twisted pairs you can connect two computers, access Internet and avail other services and perform file transfer.

Please visit the following web site for more information on twisted pair networking--http://www.twistedpair.net/

Q3. What are an intranet and a WAN?
WAN
A WAN (wide area network) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network and the term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). A wide area network may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks. An intermediate form of network in terms of geography is a metropolitan area network (MAN).

For more information about WAN please visit http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/introwan.htm

Intranet
An internet is a communication network which bridges all the small computer networks worldwide as a whole. Intranet is based upon the Internet technology, in particular the World Wide Web (WWW) to build Information Systems within an organization or enterprise to accomplish standardization and automation. Fundamentally it means network computing environments and it allows users to share the information through Internet and web browsers. Ultimately it allows a certain organization to build a Groupware within a web environment at a low cost in addition to the existing network infrastructure. By doing this, closed organization networks can be interconnected with the existing worldwide Internet which results in diverse information that strengthen competitive advantages of the organization. Basically it runs on top of TCP/IP and HTTP and filters out any illegal access through firewall.

Q 4. I would like to configure seven nodes on WinProxy, with one server based on NT.
Before installing WinProxy on your client/server machines, you need to configure the client/server systems with different IP addresses.
(E.g.192.123.0.1 - Server & 192.123.0.2 to 192.123.0.8 as clients)

Install the WinProxy on Windows-NT Server. Configure the Client systems (each system) by following these steps:
1. Select "Internet" option in control panel.
2. Select "Connect" tab and go to Proxy Server option and click the check box.
3. Click "Advanced" button and give the NT-Server IP address for all the protocols (http, ftp). The default port for http--1080 & ftp--21

Change the above settings for all your seven nodes to work on the WinProxy as a proxy server.

Now that you've added TCP/IP to all your computers, let's run a test to determine if Network Neighborhood is up and running properly. If it is, you'll know that the hub and cables are working correctly. We'll use Ping for our test.

It's a simple tool included in Windows 95/98 and NT that allows easy checking of TCP/IP connectivity.

First, open a DOS box (Start/Program/MS-DOS Prompt in Windows 95/98, and Start/Program/Command Prompt in Windows NT) and type the word ping. You'll see a list of commands and command syntax. If you're on, for instance, a client machine 192.123.0.1, you can check your connectivity to the WinProxy machine by typing in its IP address (192.123.0.3) after you type the word ping. If TCP/IP is properly set up on both machines you'll get several lines that say Reply from 192.123.0.1…If you get no reply, something is wrong with the protocol installation of the IP address on one or both the machines.

Please verify the IP addresses if you encounter any problem.

Q5. I have the network for Internet, with nodes connected through proxy. Sometimes there is a CRC error, which continues to increase. What is this CRC error? How do I rectify it?
The TCP sequence number, acknowledgment number, CRC, destination and source port flags and options are placed ahead of the data in a so-called 'header'.

TCP is a sophisticated full-duplex (both directions of transmission are used simultaneously) protocol that chops the file to be transmitted into pieces called 'segments' that can be as small as 21 bytes and as big as 64,000 bytes. Each segment is sequenced by the sending TCP and acknowledged by the receiving TCP. The receiving TCP is controlling the flow of segments by allocating a 'window' of 'so many bytes' that the transmitter can send at any time. In addition, TCP can flag data as "urgent" or "externally urgent/to be pushed", and can negotiate the maximum segment size. The segments are transmitted in sequence and checked for accuracy (with an error checking code called CRC or "Cyclic Redundancy Check") and retransmissions are requested when errors are detected.

Please check your TCP settings on the network neighborhood on server and client machines.

Q6. What are a Network server, a graphic server and an Internet Node?
Network Server
The development of computer networks has resulted in an important class of computers: Network servers. The primary purpose of these machines is to provide services, both computational and data services, to other computers on the network. Network servers have a broad array of security features like component-specific password protection for user logins, lockable chassis and power supplies, and remote-boot capabilities.
Because of their service role, it is common for servers to store many of an organization's most valuable and confidential information resources. They also are often deployed to provide a centralized capability for an entire organization, such as communication (electronic mail) or user authentication.

Graphic server
Graphic Server is the easiest way to add sophisticated graphing support to your Windows, Windows NT and Windows 95 applications. Graphics Server adds client-side and server-side graphing straight to your web pages. Graphics Server offers much more than other graphing software--support for Multiple Platforms, multiple hosts, multiple interfaces, the most extensive range of graphs, charts and statistical functions available, and much more.

Internet Node
A node is the name of a computer. The computer may be a PC, a workstation, a mini, a mainframe, or a super computer. An Internet node can be any machine in the world, as long as it is on the Internet network. The convention for a node on the Internet network is:
"machine.section.organization.type_of_organization "
where, type_of_organization may be edu, mil, gov, com, org, net or, outside of the United States, country_code.

Q 7.Can we have a star topology using coaxial cables?
In star topology, PCs are connected using mostly twisted pair cabling to provide workstations individual connections back to a hub providing a single point of connection.
Coaxial cables can also be used in this type of networking.

For further information on Star topology and coaxial cables, please visit http://www.d-m.com/tutorial.htm
And, http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/NETWORK/chap5/chap5.htm#StarNetwork

Q8. What is meant by terminal emulation program?
Terminal emulation is the ability of a personal computer (which is programmable and therefore "smart") to appear to be a "dumb" (non-programmable) terminal so that it can be used to interact with a mainframe computer or other computers with its own proprietary connection interface. With terminal emulation, a PC user can log on and get direct access to programs in the mainframe operating system. Terminal emulation requires installing a special program in the PC or on a local area network (LAN) server to which it is connected. Typically, an enterprise with mainframe computers installs a terminal emulation program in all its workstations (or LAN servers).
Workers can work locally with Windows or other PC or workstation applications and also open a window and work directly with mainframe applications. The terminal emulation program runs like any other workstation application as a separate program task providing its own window to the user. However, instead of content with a graphical user interface (GUI), the terminal emulation window presents some particular mainframe operating system or application interface that is text only.

Q9. I use Windows 98 for my LAN. It works
absolutely fine, until I log on to my Internet. After using Internet my computer loses connection to the LAN. The Network Neighborhood shows only my computer. I wonder where the problem lies. Can you help me?
To access the LAN while connected to the Net, each of the computers in the LAN, should have TCP/IP (Internet Protocol, the means by which, data is transported to and from the Internet) installed as a network protocol.
To do this:
1. Go to Start -> Settings -> Control Panel.
2. Double Click on "Network"
3. Click on Add -> Protocol -> Microsoft -> TCP/IP.
4. Edit the TCP/IP properties so that each workstation has an IP address of "90.0.0.X"and a Gateway of "90.0.0.1," which will be the proxy server's address. X is a number between 1 and 255.
5. Restart the computer.

For the proxy server you must purchase a proxy program such as "WinProxy" or "Wingate". The proxy server must have two NICs. It is best to use two different brands in order to tell the difference. This computer will have the modem installed in it. One NIC needs to have the TCP/IP properties specified by the cable modem Internet service provider (ISP) which you can get from the company you use. The other needs to have an internal IP address of "90.0.0.1." The number beginning with "90" is your internal Internet, or Intranet subnet. The reason we use an IP starting with 90 is because it will not conflict with other computers on the Internet. The reason a proxy server is used is because it saves a lot of money. It serves each computer to the Internet simultaneously, so that a cable modem need not to be purchased for each computer.

Q10.I require the following information.
1. Could you tell me how to install a proxy server such as Wingate?
2. Also tell me what settings are to be done in the connection box of Internet option box, to connect two PCs to my server?
1. For complete installation details of Wingate proxy, please visit the link given below:
http://support.ftech.net/setup/wingate3.htm
2. Regarding connecting two PCs to a server please perform the following settings in the Network options in the Control Panel.
a. Server must be with IP address and subnet mask.
b. Enable DNS entries if provided by ISP.
c. From the client machines change the proxy server IP address to server IP addresses to recognize the server.
d. Install the client proxy server software for client machines.
e. Make sure that all the client machines are running under proxy server.

Q11. I have around eight hubs and I want to stack all the eight hubs. If one of the hubs fails will the rest of my hubs work, and if the first hub fails will it disturb my network?
Yes it is possible to stack all the eight hubs. If you are using more than 2-3 hubs, then you will have to use switches for them.
Please visit the following link for information on installation of hubs and maintenance of the same:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/10_100hb/1538m_mh/icg/install.htm#xtocid31980
If one of the hubs fails the other hubs will work normally but the computers connected to that particular hub will not work.
Even in case of the failure of the first hub, only the computers connected to that particular hub will not work.

Q12. What is ISDN and what are the charges per hour and does it require a telephone line or not?
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISND) in concept is the integration of both analog or voice data together with digital data over the same network. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of standards for digital transmission over ordinary telephone copper wire as well as over other media. Home and business users who install ISDN adapters (in place of their modems) can see web pages heavy in graphics downloading very quickly (up to 128 Kbps). ISDN requires adapters at both ends of the transmission so your access provider also needs an ISDN adapter.

There are two levels of service:
The Basic Rate Interface (BRI) for the home and small enterprise.
The Primary Rate Interface (PRI) for larger users.

Both rates include a number of B (bearer) channels and a D (delta) channel. The B channels carry data, voice, and other services. The D channel carries control and signaling information.

Please visit the links given below to view the tariffs of VSNL and Mantra Online.
http://www.mantraonline.com/bbil/products.html
http://tariff.vsnl.com/gias.htm#isdial

Yes, you need a telephone line. You can apply for an ISDN line from the Department Of Telecommunications
(DoT) for the same.

Q13.For a dial up Internet connection I would like to know the difference between the following Primary Network logons in the Network settings in the Control Panel:.
1. Network logon
2. Windows logon
3. Microsoft family logon.
What is the difference between them? Which
option should I choose for a normal dial up connection to a local ISP?
1) Log on to Network: This particular option specifies that dial up Networking will attempt to log on to the network you are connecting to, using the user name and password you used while you logged on to windows.
2) Windows Log on: When you click this option under primary Network options, you will be logged on to an operating system (say win98), but no message will be shown, if your computer fails to connect to the network. You might want to use Windows log on, when your computer is not connected to the network (for instance, if you are using a portable system on the road).
3) Microsoft family log on: It contains a list of network client, adapter, protocols and services that are installed on your computer. where:
1. Client enables you to use files and printers shared on other network computers
2. Adapter is a hardware device that physically connects to your computer.
3. Protocols is the language computers use to communicate over a network.
It is important that computer must use the same protocols.
4. Some services enable sharing your file and printer with others on the network.
It includes automatic system backup, remote registry and network monitor agent.
We are providing you with a link containing the step by step configuration of dial-up connection in Windows.
http://itsweb.hartford.edu/how_tos/PPP98/How2ppp98.html

Q14. Explain Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) in detail? How does VoIP behave while interacting with General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) protocol?
VOIP

VoIP (Voice over IP-voice delivered using the Internet Protocol) is a term used in IP telephony for a set of facilities for managing the delivery of voice information using the Internet Protocol (IP). In general, this means sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets rather than in the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). A major advantage of VoIP and Internet telephony is that it avoids the tolls charged by ordinary telephone service.

VoIP, derives from the VoIP Forum, including Cisco, VocalTec, 3Com, and Netspeak to promote the use of ITU-T H.323, which is the standard for sending voice (audio) and video using IP on the public Internet and within intranets. The Forum also promotes the user of directory service standards so those users can locate other users and the use of touch-tone signals for automatic call distribution and voice mail.

In addition to IP, VoIP uses the Real-Time Protocol (RTP) to help ensure that packets get delivered in a timely way. Using public networks, it is currently difficult to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS). Better service is possible with private networks managed by an enterprise or by an Internet telephony service provider (ITSP).

A technique used by at least one equipment manufacturer, Netspeak, to help ensure faster packet delivery
is to ping all possible network gateway computers that have access to the public network and choose the fastest path before establishing a TCP socket connection with the other end. Using VoIP, an enterprise positions a "VoIP device" (such as Cisco's AS5300 access server with the VoIP feature) at a gateway. The gateway receives packetized voice transmissions from users within the company and then routes them to other parts of its intranet (local area or wide area network) or, using a T-1 or E-1 interface, sends them over the public switched telephone network.

Please visit the following links for information on how VoIP works:
http://www.isphone.net/networkvoip.html
http://www.telecomlibrary.com/content/iptelephony/newage.html

Q15) I have two different networks at two different places. I want to connect them via my modems so that I can share the data between them. Is this possible? If yes, can you please explain in detail?
It is possible to connect two different networks through the modem using a LAN modem.
A LAN modem has a built in 4 port hub. You can connect the LAN modem to a hub. This allows you to connect the LAN modem to large networks with many workstations. The limitation is that only 25 workstations on the LAN can use the LAN modem for access to the Internet or remote network. It makes no difference whether the workstations are directly connected to the LAN modem or connected to the LAN modem.
For more information regarding LAN modems, you can visit the following link:
http://www.3com.com/support/docs/lanmodem/documentation/3c886/3c886faq.html

Q16. We are working in a network environment with one dedicated NetWare server (4.11) and about twelve nodes (which have DOS/Windows95, 98, NT4 as the operating systems) for our normal office work i.e. sharing the user files and network printing. We are facing a strange problem and that is the systems are getting slower and sometimes even begin to hang. This has been happening for the past two weeks. This problem is more severe on Windows NT systems. We are using Dr.Solomon's Toolkit and Norton Antivirus 2000 on Win 95/98 systems; Norton Antivirus 5 for Win NT Workstation systems. Since Auto-protect is enabled on each system, anyone who is using floppies, etc. on any of the systems, the systems automatically scan the floppies, when accessed, and most of the older viruses are automatically detected and cleaned.

Is this problem of frequent hanging of various systems due to some new virus? I've reformatted four systems by now, and those are okay. What is the best way to deal with the viruses?

a) Whether the anti-virus should be for the NetWare server, which will eventually keep a watch on all the files accessed over a network?
b) If making all the .exe, .com, .bat, .ovl, etc. files read-only on every system will help. If yes, what other files can be made read-only?
c) After formatting one system, if we connect that particular system to the network, what are the chances of that system getting infected again? We need to connect the systems to the network server/other systems, for fully configuring, as some of the systems do not have CD-ROM drive on them and so, for further loading of the application programs/network clients we have to access the CD-ROM drives of other systems. In this case, should we reinstall all the twelve systems one by one after formatting (in stand-alone mode) and then connect to the network?
d) If we take backup of user data files, and some file is infected with the virus, will it not infect the system once again when restored, thereby nullifying the efforts of reinstalling all the systems?
e) How about updating the antivirus scanners from the internet? The updates also may contain some virus, which our present scanner may not be able to detect.
f) How to check NTFS partition from DOS based antivirus scanners e.g. Smartdog, because that requires the system to be booted from a clean DOS bootable
floppy and then check. By booting from DOS/Win
floppy or CD, only FAT partition is accessible but
not NTFS?
g) How often do we updated the anti-virus programs, because there are new viruses coming in each day?
h) Which is the best anti-virus solution for our scenario, i.e. Novell Netware/DOS/Windows95,98/NT Workstation 4?
Kindly suggest some solutions for the above.

Please check out the following possible reasons, which could help you find a solution for the "System Hangs" on the network:
1. Make sure the "Physical Cable Connections" and the network cards are functioning properly. If the network card is not proper there are chances for the card making unwanted traffic to the network. This can make network congestion and all the nodes of the network will be affected.
The cable connectors you use should not be a defective. If it is defective, the system will not respond for that particular connection.
2. To find a defective cable connection, you can try using Networking utilities, like, "HPOV", which will enable you to detect the right cable connector (or) any other defective physical connection. HP Open View network node manager can be used to get the entire network information like broadcast traffic, direct traffic and network congestion.
Please check out the following link to find information about HPOV utility:
http://www.openview.hp.com/products/nnm/index.asp
3. Also, you may face this problem with "AutoProtect" option enabled, in Norton Antivirus, when the latest Symantec Files (Norton Antivirus) has not been updated. Please check out the following link, which contains a detailed information about the same:
http://service1.symantec.com/SUPPORT/nav.nsf/docid/199871015361
b) Making the files read-only does not prevent the file from getting infected by virus. This again depends on the characteristic of the virus.
c) The new system that is connected to the network can get infected by the virus if you try to access any information from any other system, and if that particular system that you are accessing is already infected by virus. The accessing of data in the network is done by making the drives (C:\ or any other drive) sharable. To reduce the chances of spreading the virus all over the network we advice you to make a particular folder and make this sharable instead of the hard disk.
d) To avoid the system from getting infected again form some backup file, we advice you to install the latest and the updated version of Antivirus. This will scan the backup before the files are installed into the computer. If the files cannot be repaired we advice you to remove that particular file/files from the backup.
e) The updates that are available on the Net will
not be infected by any virus. It is always good to
get an updated version of the antivirus from
the Internet so that your computer can be
protected from the latest virus. The updates will not contain any virus.
f) As far as we know DOS files system which is FAT, cannot access NTFS partition, which is more, advanced. However there are third party utility like "NTFSDOS" which claim to access the NTFS partition from DOS.
NTFSDOS Professional mounts NTFS volumes and gives them drive letters, so you can run applications and use files on NTFS volumes transparently. NTFSDOS Professional is small enough to run from an MS-DOS
boot diskette so you can even access NTFS volumes
on a system where Windows NT/2000 isn't installed or able to boot.
Please visit the link given below to get information about NTFS Professional and download the same.
http://www.sysinternals.com/ntfspro.htm
g) AIt is advisable to keep your computer updated with the latest antivirus every week. Once a new virus is found the patches for these virus will be released within no time.
h) AAs far as we know, the Norton Antivirus solution 7.5 is one of the best antivirus for Novell Netware/DOS/Windows95,98/NT Workstation 4.
Please visit the link given below to get information about Norton Anti-virus Solution 7.5
http://enterprisesecurity.symantec.com/products/products.cfm?ProductID=22&PID=1659920
You can also use Norton AntiVirus Corporate Edition 7.5 for Windows 9.x, Windows NT 4.0/2000, NetWare
http://enterprisesecurity.symantec.com/products/products.cfm?productID=23&PID=na NM

All responses have been provided by
Qsupport Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore,
a 24x7, e-services company offering online
advice and solutions for any Internet or computing usage problems. For more information contact netmagindia@vsnl.com

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